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Urinary System of the Animals

All vertebrates dispose of excess water and other wastes by means of kidneys. The kidneys of fish and amphibians are comparatively simple, while those of mammals are the most complex. Fish and amphibians absorb a great deal of water and, as a result, must excrete large quantities of urine. In contrast, the urinary systems of birds and reptiles are designed to conserve water; these animals produce urine that is solid or semisolid.